Bosnia and Herzegovina is a country located on the Balkan peninsula which until 1992 was part of Yugoslavia. It is both regionally and internationally renowned for its natural and cultural heritage. The name of the region derives from the two parts it is composed of: Bosnia derives from the name of the Bosna river that crosses the territory while Erzegovina comes from herceg (in Serbian “duke”), concerning to the independence period as dukedom in XV century. Sarajevo is the capital and largest city of the country.
Although at first sight Bosnia and Herzegovina might present ethnic homogeneity from the population point of view – Bosniaks, Serbs and Croats- the situation is not that simple. Throughout the centuries, religion - the influx of different religions such as Islamism, Orthodox Christianity, Catholicism and Judaism - has become element of division and identity.
Independent in the Middle Age, Bosnia was submitted to the Turkish-ottoman domination from XV century to 1878 and to the Hapsburg domination until 1918. Soon after the country was integrated in Belgrado’s Serbian monarchy and then, in the years of the Second World War, in the Croatian utascia State. Finally from 1945 to 1992 it was absorbed by federal Yugoslavia. Only then the country proclaimed independence.
That same year, in conjunction with the international recognition of Bosnia and Herzegovina as independent State, among country’s different national and religious components broke out a terrible war which saw ONU and NATO operations and USA action which imposed the end of the conflict in 1995, with Dayton Agreement. A peace arrangement followed the facts and Bosnia and Herzegovina was largely decentralized. Now it comprises two autonomous entities: the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republika Srpska.